Tag Archives: anti-Chinese legislation

“Murderers Stop at Nothing” 1886

“Murderers Stop At Nothing” 20 March, 1886 by Thomas Nast. Source: Museum of Fine Arts Huston, shared under Public Domain license

In this issue, which also includes another example from Nast on Chinese immigration policy, two murdered white men lie on the streets of Seattle, Washington, then a U.S. territory. The cartoon depicts an actual news event.

The perpetrators of the double-murders lurk in a darkened alley, their identity unknown. The victims, identified as M. Coleman and Wilson Patten, “well-known” citizens of Seattle, killed for serving on a Grand Jury which indited several men for participating in an anti-Chinese riot.  As the caption states, several Chinese men were killed in labor dispute in nearby coal mines. Similar riots and melees were sprouting all across the pacific Northwest.  Labor issues at coal mines were a frequent backdrop for white versus Chinese intimidation and violence.

The Pacific Reporter, Volume 19, “containing all the decisions of the supreme courts” for western territories states provides additional details.

Subsequently one George H. Miller, described in the transcript as “ignorant and illiterate” was indicted for murder. Miller’s motive, allegedly, was to stop the testimony of Coleman and Patten who would implicate him in some manner.  A Chinese conflict is not addressed in the court documents. The evidence against Miller was circumstantial. Miller was found guilty and sentenced to hang.

“The murder was the shooting of one George M. Coleman and a 16-year-old school-boy by the name of Patten” (50).

Chinese are not pictured in the cartoon, but the image is jarring. The consequences of standing up for or defending justice toward the Chinese is a fatal one. Nast takes some creative license in placing the victims on the street. The men were actually killed on a boat

The bodies of the murdered men lay beneath a wall poster which reads, “The Chinese Must Go! And all whites that enforce the laws of the land.” Another proclamation follows in large letters: “WE DON’T STOP AT COLOR!”

The law of the land is not to be respected. The Chinese allowed to stay under the provisions of the Chinese Exclusion Act, must also go. The example of this double-homicide by anti-Chinese vigilantes makes their intimidating message very clear.

In the preceding pages of the issue, Harper’s editors decry the violence and “massacre and mobbing of innocent Chinese” (p. 195). Harper’s short essay praises Washington Territory’s Governor Squire who spoke out against the violence and called upon the people and citizens of his jurisdiction to “rebuke incendiary agitation, secret intrigue, and sedition.”

“It is a national disgrace that having excluded Chinese immigration by law, the hundred thousand Chinese who are so unlucky as to be caught in the country are outraged by foreign mobs, while the government politely regrets that it can do nothing,” Harper’s editor writes.

Curiously, Harper’s summarizes with mixed messages, “The coming of the Chinese may be a curse. But if it be a curse, it is now prohibited by law, and honest Americans upon the Pacific slope should be the first to defend those who are here against brutal lawlessness” (p,195).

 

 

Anti-laundry laws – the Chinese fight back

Collectively, Chinese immigrants to the U.S. were the most directly affected and restricted by prejudice through the enactment of local, and later national laws, designed to drive out the Chinese.  The hotbed of anti-Chinese legislation rested in the San Francisco area, where year after year, new laws sought to penalize and prevent the Chinese to assimilate.

As Jean Pfaelzer and others have noted, the Chinese fought back against the targeted prejudice, most often through legal means and resources supported through the Chinese Six Companies. As an example of their tenacity to challenge this onslaught, the case of Yick Wo is worth noting.  Wo fought against an early, racist anti-laundry law enacted in San Francisco in 1880.

Yick Wo: How  A Racist Laundry Law in Early San Francisco helped Civil Rights, by Diana Fan, August 23, 2015. Hoodline. com